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Seasonal Sea Surface Temperature Averages, 1985-2001

Seasonal Sea Surface Temperature Averages, 1985-2001

Metadata also available as - [Outline] - [Parseable text] - [XML] - [DIF]

Frequently-anticipated questions:


What does this data set describe?

Title: Seasonal Sea Surface Temperature Averages, 1985-2001
Abstract:
This data set consists of four images showing seasonal sea surface temperature (SST) averages for the entire earth. Data for the years 1985-2001 are averaged to produce each seasonal image. The seasons are January-March (sst001i4km.tif), April-June (sst002i4km.tif), July-September (sst003i4km.tif), and October-December (sst004i4km.tif).

These SST data are the result of the 4 km Pathfinder effort at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC) and the University of Miami's Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science (RSMAS), which uses data from the NOAA-9, NOAA-11, NOAA-14, and NOAA-16 satellites. The 4 km Pathfinder effort at NODC is an improvement to the original Pathfinder program, which was jointly developed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and NOAA to provide long-term, consistently calibrated global change data sets to Earth scientists. One of the data sets selected for the Pathfinder project was collected by the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR), a scanning radiometer flying onboard polar orbiters operated by NOAA. The original AVHRR Pathfinder Program involved four separate elements: Atmosphere, Land, Oceans, and Calibration. The objective of the AVHRR Oceans Pathfinder was to develop a long and consistent time series of global sea surface temperature (SST) fields. The Pathfinder Project at NODC carries on this objective.

The files for each season, also known as seasonal climatologies, are available both as 16-bit (pixel values from 0 to 65535) Hierarchical Data Format (.HDF) data files and as 8-bit (pixel values from 0 to 255) GeoTIFF images.

This data set is also referred to as 4 km NODC/RSMAS AVHRR Pathfinder v.5.0 Seasonal Climatologies (1985-2001).

Supplemental_Information:
The data displayed in the Map Maker of the National Atlas of the United States <http://nationalatlas.gov/natlas/Natlasstart.asp> have been clipped to the standard National Atlas extent, masked using a National Atlas land/water mask, and projected to a Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area projection. The distributed data represent the global data set rather than the clipped and projected version available for viewing through the National Atlas.

SST is a difficult parameter to define exactly because the upper ocean (~10 m) has a complex and variable vertical temperature structure that is related to ocean turbulence and the air-sea fluxes of heat, moisture and momentum. Definitions of SST provide a necessary theoretical framework that can be used to understand the information content and relationships between measurements of SST made by different instruments. The following explanatory statements attempt to provide this framework and encapsulate the effects of the dominant heat transport processes and time scale of variability associated with distinct vertical and volume regimes within a vertical element of the water column (horizontal and temporal variability is implicitly assumed):

 The interface SST, SSTint, is the temperature of an infinitely thin layer at the
 exact air-sea interface.  It represents the temperature at the top of the SSTskin
 temperature gradient (layer) and cannot be measured using current technology.
 It is important to note that it is the SSTint that interacts with the atmosphere.
 The skin SST, SSTskin, is a temperature measured within a thin water layer (<500
 micrometer) adjacent to the air-sea interface.  It is where conductive, diffusive
 and molecular heat transfer processes dominate.  A strong vertical temperature
 gradient is characteristically maintained in this thin layer sustained by the
 magnitude and direction of the ocean-atmosphere heat flux.  Thus, SSTskin varies
 according to the actual measurement depth within the layer.  This layer provides
 the connectivity between a turbulent ocean and a turbulent atmosphere.
 The sub-skin SST, SSTsub-skin, is representative of the SST at the bottom of the
 surface layer where the dominance of molecular and conductive processes gives way
 to turbulent heat transfer.  It varies on a time scale of minutes and is
 influenced by solar warming in a manner strongly dependent on the turbulent
 energy density in the layer below.
 The near surface ocean temperature (~10 m) is significantly influenced by local
 solar heating and typically varies with depth over a time scale of hours.
 Consequently "SST" measurements should always be referenced against a specific
 depth or an average over a depth range.  The notation SSTdepth  refers to any
 temperature within the water column beneath the SSTsub-skin where turbulent heat
 transfer processes dominate.  The traditional "bulk" SST is related to this
 measure.  SSTdepth should always be quoted at a specific depth in the water
 column; e.g., SST1m refers to the SST at a depth of 1m.
 The SSTskin is the closest parameter actually measured by the AVHRR satellite
 radiometer.  However, because the Pathfinder algorithm regresses the satellite-
 observed radiances against buoy temperatures to determine a "bulk" SST, the
 actual SST is akin to the SSTdepth where depth is about 1 m.
The current 4 km data set is an extension of and improvement on the SST fields from the AVHRR Oceans 9 km Pathfinder data set (<http://www.rsmas.miami.edu/groups/rrsl/pathfinder/index.html>). Some important shortcomings in the original 9 km data have been corrected, and the entire time series has been reprocessed at the 4 km Global Area Coverage (GAC) level, currently the highest resolution possible globally. In addition, several enhancements have been made that increase the usefulness of the SST fields, including the use of sea ice in the quality level determination scheme, inclusion of many inland water bodies, and the use of a greatly improved land mask. The greatest improvements are seen in coastal zones, marginal seas, and boundary current regions where SST gradients are often large and their impact on operational or research products is greatest.

The data set was produced from 1985-2001 data using the Version 5.0 Pathfinder algorithm. Version 5.0 is an improved version of the previously-most-successful of the many methods used to derive SST from AVHRR observations. For more detail on this version of the Pathfinder data, a description of the processing algorithm, and a comparison of version 5 and version 4, please see the 4 km Pathfinder Version 5.0 User Guide at <http://www.nodc.noaa.gov/sog/pathfinder4km/userguide.html>.

Relative to the older 9 km v4.2 Pathfinder data, the new, ~4 km-resolution Pathfinder Version 5.0 global SSTs increase detail roughly by a factor of four simply by virtue of the increased resolution. The increase in detail over widely used but relatively coarse SST datasets such as Optimally Interpolated SST Version 2 (Reynolds et al., 2002, <http://ams.allenpress.com/amsonline/> ?request=get-abstract&issn=1520-0442&volume=015&issue=13&page=1609>) and the Hadley Centre's Global Sea Ice and SST (Rayner et al., 2003, <http://www.agu.org/pubs/crossref/2003/2002JD002670.shtml>) is far greater.

The University of Miami Pathfinder version v4.2 SST algorithm is fully described in Kilpatrick et al., (2001). <http://www.agu.org/pubs/crossref/2001/1999JC000065.shtml>. The v4.2 algorithm offered marked improvement over operational retrieval algorithms such as multi- channel sea surface temperature (MCSST) and was applied to AVHRR data to maximize accuracy and to minimize artificial fluctuations arising from the sequence of AVHRR instruments flown on NOAA's polar-orbiting satellites during the past 2 decades. The 9 km v4.2 Pathfinder SSTs were shown to be the highest quality product then available for the construction of global climatologies (Casey and Cornillon, 1999, <http://ams.allenpress.com/amsonline/?request=get-abstract&issn=1520-0442&volume>= 12&issue=6&page=1848>) and longer-term SST trend determination (Casey and Cornillon, 2001, <http://ams.allenpress.com/amsonline/?request=get-abstract&issn>= 1520-0442&volume=14&issue=18&page=3801>), and have been demonstrated to be accurate within about 0.3 degrees C under optimal conditions (Kearns et al., 2000, <http://ams.allenpress.com/pdfserv/i1520-0477-081-07-1525.pdf>).

For a detailed description of the Version 4.0 Pathfinder SST algorithm, please see <http://www.rsmas.miami.edu/groups/rrsl/pathfinder/Algorithm/algo_index.html>.

For a review of earlier techniques, see Barton (1995). <http://www.agu.org/pubs/crossref/1995/95JC00365.shtml>

For more information on AVHRR, see <http://eros.usgs.gov/guides/avhrr.html> and <http://nationalatlas.gov/articles/mapping/a_avhrr.html>.

The NOAA Polar Orbiter Data User's Guide describes the orbital and spacecraft characteristics, instruments, data formats, etc. of the TIROS-N, and NOAA-6 through NOAA-14 polar orbiter series of satellites. See <http://www2.ncdc.noaa.gov/docs/podug/> for more information.

A text file containing a complete source bibliography for this data set and suggested additional reading is bundled with the downloadable data. The file is called sstalli_biblio.txt.

The following parameters are used for the GeoTIFF:

Version: 1
Key_Revision: 1.0

Tagged_Information:
ModelTiepointTag (2,3):
0                0                0
-180             90               0
ModelPixelScaleTag (1,3):
0.0439453      0.0439453      0
End_Of_Tags.

Keyed_Information:
GTModelTypeGeoKey (Short,1): ModelTypeGeographic
GTRasterTypeGeoKey (Short,1): RasterPixelIsArea
GTCitationGeoKey (Ascii,17): "LONG/LAT    E005"
GeographicTypeGeoKey (Short,1): GCS_WGS_84
GeogAngularUnitsGeoKey (Short,1): Angular_Degree
ProjLinearUnitsGeoKey (Short,1): Linear_Meter
End_Of_Keys.
End_Of_Geotiff.

GCS: 4326/WGS 84
Datum: 6326/World Geodetic System 1984
Ellipsoid: 7030/WGS 84 (6378137.00,6356752.31)
Prime Meridian: 8901/Greenwich (0.000000/  0d 0' 0.00"E)

Projection Linear Units: 9001/metre (1.000000m)
Corner Coordinates:
Upper Left    (180d 0' 0.00"W, 90d 0' 0.00"N)
Lower Left    (180d 0' 0.00"W, 90d 0' 0.00"S)
Upper Right   (180d 0' 0.00"E, 90d 0' 0.00"N)
Lower Right   (180d 0' 0.00"E, 90d 0' 0.00"S)
Center        (  0d 0' 0.00"E,  0d 0' 0.00"N)
The associated world file is included as part of the GeoTIFF. The contents of the world file are:
0.0439
0.000000
0.000000
-0.0439
-180.0000
90.0000
  1. How should this data set be cited?

    Kenneth S. Casey, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Adminis, Edward J. Kearns, University of Miami, Rosenstiel School of , Vicki Halliwell, University of Miami, RSMAS, and Robert Evans, University of Miami, RSMAS, 200412, Seasonal Sea Surface Temperature Averages, 1985-2001: NOAA National Oceanographic Data Center, Silver Spring, MD.

    Online Links:

  2. What geographic area does the data set cover?

    West_Bounding_Coordinate: -180
    East_Bounding_Coordinate: 180
    North_Bounding_Coordinate: 90
    South_Bounding_Coordinate: -90

  3. What does it look like?

    <ftp://ftp.nodc.noaa.gov/pub/pathfinder/seasonal_climatology/season1_combined.tif> (GeoTIFF)
    An image of the global data set of 1985-2001 averaged SST (January to March).
    <ftp://ftp.nodc.noaa.gov/pub/pathfinder/seasonal_climatology/season2_combined.tif> (GeoTIFF)
    Image of global data set of 1985-2001 averaged SST (April to June)
    <ftp://ftp.nodc.noaa.gov/pub/pathfinder/seasonal_climatology/season3_combined.tif> (GeoTIFF)
    Image of global data set of 1985-2001 averaged SST (July to September)
    <ftp://ftp.nodc.noaa.gov/pub/pathfinder/seasonal_climatology/season4_combined.tif> (GeoTIFF)
    Image of global data set of 1985-2001 averaged SST (October to December)

  4. Does the data set describe conditions during a particular time period?

    Beginning_Date: 01-Jan-1985
    Ending_Date: 31-Dec-2001
    Currentness_Reference: Dates of source data

  5. What is the general form of this data set?

    Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: Map

  6. How does the data set represent geographic features?

    1. How are geographic features stored in the data set?

      This is a Raster data set. It contains the following raster data types:

      • Dimensions 4096 x 8192, type Grid cell

    2. What coordinate system is used to represent geographic features?

      Horizontal positions are specified in geographic coordinates, that is, latitude and longitude. Latitudes are given to the nearest 0.0439453125. Longitudes are given to the nearest 0.0439453125. Latitude and longitude values are specified in Decimal degrees.

      The horizontal datum used is WGS84.
      The ellipsoid used is WGS84.
      The semi-major axis of the ellipsoid used is 6378137.
      The flattening of the ellipsoid used is 1/298.257223563.

  7. How does the data set describe geographic features?

    Sea Surface Temperature (SST) grid cell
    Any of the data elements in the SST file. (Source: NOAA National Oceanographic Data Center/Satellite Oceanography Group)

    SST grid cell value
    The grid cell values represent 1985-2001 average seasonal (Jan-Mar, Apr-Jun, Jul- Sep, and Oct-Dec) sea surface temperatures. The higher the value the higher the SST. Sea surface temperature in degrees C can be calculated from the pixel value as follows:
    in the HDF files, SST in deg C = 0.075 x pixel value - 3.  Temperatures are
    represented in 0.075 degree C increments, and land has a value of 1.  While
    pixel values can range from 0 to 65535, realistic pixel values for SST will
    always be less than 600.
    
    in the GeoTIFF files, SST in deg C = 0.15 x pixel value - 3. Temperatures are
    represented in 0.15 degree C increments, and land has a value of 255.  Pixel
    values can range from 0 to 255.
    
    (Source: Dr. Kenneth Casey, NODC/Satellite Oceanography Group)

    Range of values
    Minimum:0
    Maximum:500


Who produced the data set?

  1. Who are the originators of the data set? (may include formal authors, digital compilers, and editors)

    • Kenneth S. Casey, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC)
    • Edward J. Kearns, University of Miami, Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science (RSMAS)
    • Vicki Halliwell, University of Miami, RSMAS
    • Robert Evans, University of Miami, RSMAS

  2. Who also contributed to the data set?

  3. To whom should users address questions about the data?

    Dr. Kenneth S. Casey
    NOAA/NESDIS National Oceanographic Data Center
    NOAA/NESDIS National Oceanographic Data Center
    Silver Spring, MD 20910
    USA

    301-713-3272 x133 (voice)
    301-713-3300 (FAX)
    [email protected]

    Hours_of_Service: 9:00 AM - 4:00 PM, Eastern time


Why was the data set created?

These data are intended for geographic display and analysis at global, national, and local levels. The data should be used at scales appropriate to 4 km resolution data. No responsibility is assumed by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration or the National Atlas of the United States in the use of these data.


How was the data set created?

  1. From what previous works were the data drawn?

    AVHRR (source 1 of 4)
    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Unknown, 5-Channel Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) Global Area Coverage (GAC) data: NOAA, Washington, DC.

    Online Links:

    Type_of_Source_Media: Online
    Source_Contribution: Spatial and attribute information

    HRPT (source 2 of 4)
    Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science, 200001, Sea Surface Temperature Global Area Coverage (GAC) Processing, Appendix A: Calibration and Navigation correction factors, Tables A.1: Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science, Miami, FL.

    Online Links:

    Type_of_Source_Media: Online
    Source_Contribution: Calibration information

    PFMDB (source 3 of 4)
    Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science, 200106, Matchup Database 1985-1997 (Version 19.0): Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science, Miami, FL.

    Online Links:

    Type_of_Source_Media: Online
    Source_Contribution: Calibration information

    Land Mask (source 4 of 4)
    Land Processes Distributed Data, U.S. Geological Survey, 2002, MODIS/Terra Land Cover Type 96-Day L3 Global 1km ISIN Grid: U.S. Geological Survey, Sioux Falls, SD.

    Online Links:

    Type_of_Source_Media: Online
    Source_Contribution: Calibration information

  2. How were the data generated, processed, and modified?

    Date: 01-Jul-2004 (process 1 of 1)
    Sections A-D, below, describe the basic steps in the Pathfinder processing system; section E describes the steps required to produce the climatologies.

    Pathfinder SST Processing Steps

    A. AVHRR Global Area Coverage (GAC) data are processed to calibrate and convert digital counts to radiances for channels 1 through 5. Pre-launch calibration data is required for processing the data from all five channels. For channels 1 and 2, a linear counts-to-radiance conversion is done, then sensor decay-rate data is used to correct for temporal changes, and finally inter-satellite standardization data is used to correct for inter-satellite differences, using NOAA-9 as the reference. The last two steps both use data from a radiometrically stable target location in the Libyan desert (21-23N latitude; 28-29E longitude). For channels 3, 4, and 5, a non-linear counts-to-radiance conversion is done using the pre-launch calibration data as well as onboard blackbody (space view and sensor base plate) data.

    Clock corrections are made to the data, using Earth time offset data based on Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science High-Resolution Picture Transmission (HRPT) data. Attitude corrections are made using coastline comparison data.

    The result of these steps is navigated, calibrated albedos/brightness temperatures for all five channels. Channels 1 and 2 will not be used in the Pathfinder SST algorithm, and channel 3 is used only in assignment of a quality indicator.

    B. Channel 4 and 5 brightness temperatures are converted to SST in degrees C using the Pathfinder algorithm, which requires a set of monthly coefficients derived using the Pathfinder Buoy Matchup Database (PFMDB). This is a set of in situ buoy SST observations and collocated AVHRR data. In addition, a first-guess SST field is needed by the algorithm. This first-guess field is the Reynolds Weekly Global Optimally Interpolated SST version 2 (OISSTv2) product.

    A quality flag for each pixel is determined by combining the results of several tests: a channel 3, 4 and 5 brightness temperature test using data available from the calibration and conversion step, an evaluation of the viewing angle using a satellite zenith angle check, a reference field comparison check against the first-guess SST value, a stray sunlight test using information on whether the data in question are to left or right of nadir, an edge test which checks the location of the pixel within a scan line and the location of the scan line within the processing piece (a "piece" is a subset of an entire orbit file), a glint test using a glint index calculated according to the Cox and Munk formulation (Cox, C., and W. Munk: Measurements of the roughness of the sea surface from photographs of the sun's glitter. Journal of the Optical Society of America, Vol. 44, Issue 11, pp. 838-850, November 1954.), and application of a sea ice mask to identify pixels falling on areas of sea ice. The ice mask is based on weekly Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) data and the ice information contained in the Reynolds OISSTv2. (A full description of the development of the sea ice mask is given in the Pathfinder Version 5.0 User Guide at <http://www.nodc.noaa.gov/sog/pathfinder4km/userguide.html>.)

    C. Spatial binning is performed, by defining an equal-area grid into which GAC pixels are binned. No external data are needed, only information on the equal- area binning strategy itself. See <http://www.rsmas.miami.edu/groups/rrsl/> pathfinder/Processing/proc_index.html#spatial_bin> for a description of spatial binning procedures.

    A data-day is defined following a spatial data-day definition. See <http://www.nodc.noaa.gov/sog/pathfinder4km/Data-day.pdf>for a description of the spatial data-day definition, written by Guillermo Podesta, University of Miami RSMAS.

    A land mask is applied to the dataset, identifying pixels that fall on land. In the 4 km Version 5.0 Pathfinder data set, a land mask based on a 1 km resolution MODIS dataset derived by the USGS Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center is used.

    D. Temporal Binning is performed to produce daily averages. The spatially binned pieces from step C are accumulated into a single ascending (daytime) or descending (nighttime) file for each day. In case of overlapping satellite passes, only the best pixels of equivalent quality are binned. See <http://www.rsmas.miami.edu/groups/rrsl/pathfinder/Processing/proc_index.html> #temporal_binning> for a description of temporal binning procedures. The 4 km Version 5.0 Pathfinder program also generates temporal averages for 5-day, 7-day, 8-day, monthly, and yearly periods.

    A final comparison is made to an internal 3-week Pathfinder comparison field.

    Fields are reformatted from equal-area to equal-angle for distribution in HDF format. While the old 9 km Pathfinder data were distributed in HDF4 Raster format, the new 4 km Version 5.0 Pathfinder data are distributed in HDF4-SDS format, with tiling (internally compressed chunks) enabled.

    E. The SST seasonal climatologies are produced. The individual monthly files generated by the Version 5.0 Pathfinder Project for 1985-2001 are averaged to create a set of initial monthly climatologies. For example, January of 1986, January of 1987,...., January of 2001 are averaged to create a climatological January. Only the highest quality data (overall quality flag=7) are used.

    Following the steps described in Casey and Cornillon, 1999 (<http://ams.allenpress.com/amsonline/?request=get-abstract&issn=1520-0442>& volume=12&issue=6&page=1848>), most of any remaining gaps in the initial monthly climatology are filled by applying a 7x7 median fill; no already present data are modified. Any remaining gaps are linearly filled using the previous and following monthly climatological values, if they are available; no already present data are modified. Another 7x7 median fill is applied in case any gaps remain; no already present data are modified. (Casey and Cornillon (1999) describe application of a final 7x7 median-filter to smooth the entire field, but this step is not performed for the seasonal climatologies.)

    The resulting monthly climatologies are averaged seasonally to produce a seasonal climatology for each season. For example, the January, February, and March climatologies are averaged to create the Season 1 climatology.

    Person who carried out this activity:

    Dr. Kenneth S. Casey
    NOAA/NESDIS National Oceanographic Data Center
    NOAA/NESDIS National Oceanographic Data Center
    Silver Spring, MD 20910
    USA

    301-713-3272 x133 (voice)
    301-713-3300 (FAX)
    [email protected]

    Hours_of_Service: 9:00 AM - 4:00 PM, Eastern time
    Data sources used in this process:
    • AVHRR
    • HRPT
    • PFMDB
    • Land Mask

  3. What similar or related data should the user be aware of?

    NASA/Jet Propulsion Laboratory Physical Oceanography Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC), Unknown, AVHRR Pathfinder products: NASA/Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA.

    Online Links:

    NASA/Jet Propulsion Laboratory Physical Oceanography Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC), Unknown, SST Climatology products: NASA/Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA.

    Online Links:

    NASA/Jet Propulsion Laboratory Physical Oceanography Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC), Unknown, Multi-Channel Sea Surface Temperature products: NASA/Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA.

    Online Links:

    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Unknown, MODIS Ocean products: NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD.

    Online Links:


How reliable are the data; what problems remain in the data set?

  1. How well have the observations been checked?

    No rigorous tests of attribute accuracy have been performed on this data set. For information on accuracy assessment of satellite SST measurements, see the 4 km Pathfinder Version 5.0 User Guide at <http://www.nodc.noaa.gov/sog/pathfinder4km/userguide.html>.

  2. How accurate are the geographic locations?

    Corrections have been applied to the raw AVHRR data to adjust for drift in the spacecraft clock and uncertainty errors in spacecraft and sensor attitude. For detailed information on correction procedures, please see Sea Surface Temperature Global Area Coverage (GAC) Processing Appendix A: Calibration and Navigation Correction Factors for a list of clock offsets for each NOAA spacecraft, at <http://www.rsmas.miami.edu/groups/rrsl/pathfinder/Processing/proc_app_a.html>.

  3. How accurate are the heights or depths?

  4. Where are the gaps in the data? What is missing?

    The SST climatologies are global in coverage. Most gaps in the data are in the extreme high latitudes and are due to the presence of persistent sea ice.

    The .HDF files represent the data as 16-bit, with pixel values that can range from 0 to 65535. Temperatures are represented in 0.075 degC increments. In contrast, the GeoTIFF files represent the data as 8-bit, with pixel values that can range from 0 to 255. Temperatures are represented in 0.15 degC increments. While the GeoTIFF files were developed to facilitate access and use of these data by the widest variety of users, the lower level of precision possible means that they are not a complete representation of the data in the .HDF files.

  5. How consistent are the relationships among the observations, including topology?

    The source data came from four NOAA satellites over the course of more than 15 years. Corrections have been made for inter-satellite differences as well as for variations in the data from individual satellites. For more information on the adjustments performed, see the 4 km Pathfinder Version 5.0 Users Guide at <http://www.nodc.noaa.gov/sog/pathfinder4km/userguide.html>, and the Process Step, below.

    To verify data integrity, files are run against the NOAA program MD5 which indicates any problems in data transfer. For more information see the original MD5 documentation at <http://www.isi.edu/in-notes/rfc1321.txt>.


How can someone get a copy of the data set?

Are there legal restrictions on access or use of the data?

Access_Constraints: None
Use_Constraints:
Please acknowledge the use of these data with "The Pathfinder Version 5.0 SST Data were produced by the NOAA/National Oceanographic Data Center and are available from <http://www.nodc.noaa.gov/sog/> or <http://nationalatlas.gov/atlasftp.html?openChapters=chpclim#chpclim.>"

  1. Who distributes the data set? (Distributor 1 of 2)

    Earth Science Information Center, U.S. Geological Survey
    507 National Center
    Reston, VA 20192

    1-888-ASK-USGS (1-888-275-8747) (voice)

    Contact_Instructions:
    In addition to the address above there are other ESIC offices throughout the country. A full list of these offices is at <http://ask.usgs.gov/esic_index.html>.
  2. What's the catalog number I need to order this data set?

  3. What legal disclaimers am I supposed to read?

    Although these data have been processed successfully on a computer system at the U.S. Geological Survey, no warranty expressed or implied is made by the U.S. Geological Survey regarding the utility of the data on any other system, nor shall the act of distribution constitute any such warranty. No responsibility is assumed by the U.S. Geological Survey in the use of these data.

  4. How can I download or order the data?


  1. Who distributes the data set? (Distributor 2 of 2)

    NOAA National Oceanographic Data Center
    SSMC3, 4th Floor, E/OC1
    Silver Spring, MD 20910
    USA

    301-713-3277 (voice)
    301-713-3301 (FAX)
    [email protected]

    Hours_of_Service: 8:00 - 6:00 PM, Eastern time
    Contact_Instructions: Phone/FAX/E-mail/letter during business hours
  2. What's the catalog number I need to order this data set?

    NODC Accession #0001658

  3. What legal disclaimers am I supposed to read?

    NOAA makes no warranty regarding these data, expressed or implied, nor does the fact of distribution constitute such a warranty. NOAA and NODC cannot assume liability for any damages caused by any errors or omissions in these data, nor as a result of the failure of these data to function on a particular system.

  4. How can I download or order the data?

    • Availability in digital form:

      Data format: Four .HDF files comprising seasonal climatologies 1985-2001 (seasons as defined by periods Jan-Mar, Apr-Jun, Jul-Sept, Oct-Dec). Four 8-bit GeoTIFF files of the same climatologies are bundled with the .HDF files. in format HDF (version 4) NCSA Hierarchical Data Format (HDF 4), Scientific Data Set (HDF-SDS) Size: 30000000
      Network links: <http://www.nodc.noaa.gov/search/prod/>
      <ftp://ftp.nodc.noaa.gov/pub/pathfinder/seasonal_climatology>

      Data format: Four 8-bit GeoTIFF representations of seasonal climatologies 1985-2001 (seasons as defined by periods Jan-Mar, Apr-Jun, Jul-Sept, Oct-Dec). Four 16-bit .HDFD files of the same climatologies are bundled with the GeoTIFF files. Although the data are represented using 16-bit in the .HDF files, 8-bit GeoTIFF files were developed to facilitate access and use of these data by the widest variety of users; as such the GeoTIFF representations of the .HDF files are not a complete representation of the data in the .HDF files. in format TIFF (version 1) GeoTIFF Size: 36000000
      Network links: <http://www.nodc.noaa.gov/search/prod/>
      <ftp://ftp.nodc.noaa.gov/pub/pathfinder/seasonal_climatology>

    • Cost to order the data: None

    • Special instructions:

      Data may be directly downloaded through the NODC website at: <http://www.nodc.noaa.gov/search/prod/>. NODC can be contacted directly for custom orders. (When requesting data from the NODC, the desired data set may be referred to as NODC Accession #0001658). In addition, these data and accompanying browse graphics may be directly downloaded from the NODC FTP server at: <ftp://ftp.nodc.noaa.gov/pub/pathfinder/seasonal_climatology>.

    • How long will it take to get the data?

      Within 24 hours if downloaded via the Internet

  5. Is there some other way to get the data?

    Contact the NODC User Services Group via phone/FAX/E-mail: [email protected]

  6. What hardware or software do I need in order to use the data set?

    PC, Mac, or other server, standard Internet browser, ability to work with .HDF and/or GeoTIFF files strongly recommended.


Who wrote the metadata?

Dates:
Last modified: 07-Jun-2006
Metadata author:
Sheri Phillips or Amanda Lowe
NOAA/NODC
1315 East-West Highway, E/OC1, SSMC3, 4th Floor
Silver Spring, MD 20910
USA

301-713-3280 x127 (voice)
301-713-3302 (FAX)
[email protected]

Hours_of_Service: 9:30 AM - 6 PM Monday-Thursday
Contact_Instructions: E-mail, phone, FAX, mail
Metadata standard:
FGDC Content Standards for Digital Geospatial Metadata (FGDC-STD-001-1998)



 


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