democratizing GIS
Home   Store   Free GIS   Education   Free Shapefiles   Census   Weather   Energy   Climate Change   News   Maps   TOPO   Aerial   GPS   Learn GIS

DOWNLOAD SHAPEFILES: Canada FSA Postal - Zip Code - U.S. Waterbodies & Wetlands - Geographic Names - School Districts - Indian Federal Lands
Zip Code/Demographics - Climate Change - U.S. Streams, Rivers & Waterways - Tornadoes - Nuclear Facilities - Dams & Risk - 2013 Toxic Release Inventory TRI

ANWR Arctic National Wildlife Refuge; What is at stake; removed USFWS website; photos, maps, descriptions

tools for survival plans Maps Food Water Health Gardening Energy Housing Security Communications Livelihood

Money Making Tips Work from Home Make Money Used Lumber & Building Materal Beginner's Guide Buy/Sell Gold Electronics & Computer

GIS Shapefile Store - for Beginners & Experienced GIS Users Alike. Geographic Names Information System, Nuclear Facilities, Zip Code Boundaries, School Districts, Indian & Federal Lands, Climate Change, Tornadoes, Dams - Create digital GIS maps in minutes.

Toxic Release Inventory TRI Shapefiles

Canada FSA Postal Code Shapefile

GNIS Shapefiles 2,000,000+ Points

Nuclear Energy Facilities in the U.S.

Download Zip Code with Demographics Shapefiles

Download U.S. Streams & Rivers Shapefiles

Download Water Body & Wetland Shapefiles

Download Zip Code Boundary Shapefiles

Download School District Shapefiles

Download Indian & Federal Land Shapefiles

Download Climate Change Shapefiles

Download Tornado Shapefiles

Download Dams & Risks Shapefiles

Follow on Twitter Follow on Twitter

Didn't find what you are looking for? Email me and I'll find it for you.

Progressive Links

Federation of American Scientists

Physicians for Social Responsibility

Public Employees for Environmental Responsibility

Union of Concerned Scientists


Reader Supported News

Common Dreams


Huffington Post

Media Matters

Think Progress

Grist Environmental News

Climate Shift Blog

MapCruzin Consulting
Data Research and GIS Specialists.

GIS Tutorials

GIS Basics

GIS Terminology

Of Interest

Arctic National Wildlife Refuge Maps

Climate Shift - The effects of climate shift on the future of planet earth and its inhabitants.

Right to Know or Left to Wonder?

Hazardscapes - Toxic and Nuclear Risks in your backyard.

War & Environment

Worst Case Scenarios: Terrorism & industrial chemicals.

EPA Approves Emissions Trading Scheme
Fair Use Statement


Source: ENS

See Also -->PEER (Public Employees for Environmental Responsibility) white paper on emissions trading (June, 2000)

EPA Approves Emissions Trading Scheme

By Brian Hansen

CHICAGO, Illinois, December 19, 2000 (ENS) - The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has taken steps to formally sanction the state of Illinois' controversial program of allowing industrial polluters to trade air pollution credits in the smoggy Chicago metropolitan area. The state of Illinois' so called "cap and trade" program for emissions of volatile organic compounds is the first such initiative in the country.

Two other states - New Jersey and Michigan - are expected to propose similar initiatives to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for trading volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions credits in their nonattainment areas. The EPA is expected to approve all three proposals.


Under the Illinois program, polluters that voluntarily cap their VOC emissions at levels 12 percent less than their 1996 levels are eligible to receive emission "credits" from state environmental regulators. Participating polluters then have a choice of choice of actually cutting their emissions by 12 percent, or buying credits from another VOC polluter that pledges to cut its emissions by that amount, in addition to its own 12 percent reduction.

EPA officials say the trading program effectively reduces VOC emissions by 12 percent in the Chicago metropolitan area, which does not currently meet national health based standards for ozone. Moreover, the trading program will allow participating companies reduce their emissions in sectors that are easiest and cheapest for them to control, EPA officials emphasize.

"We congratulate Illinois for taking this ground breaking approach to reducing emissions that cause ozone," said EPA regional administrator Francis Lyons. "This approach will reward companies that develop new ways to cut their VOC emissions."

VOCs are emitted through a variety of sources, including industrial plants, automobiles and consumer products such as paint strippers. VOCs are classified as ozone precursors, which means that they contribute to the creation of "bad" ground level ozone - commonly known as urban smog - when they react with sunlight and hot weather.

The EPA says the health effects from VOC exposure can include eye, nose, and throat irritation; headaches, loss of coordination and nausea. Overexposure can also cause damage to liver, kidney and central nervous system.

Some VOCs can cause cancer in animals, and some are suspected or known to cause cancer in humans. Millions of Americans live in areas that are out of attainment with national ozone health standards established by the EPA.


Repeated exposure to ozone pollution may cause permanent damage to the lungs. Inhaling ozone even in low levels can trigger a variety of health problems, including chest pains, coughing, nausea, throat irritation and congestion. It can also worsen bronchitis, heart disease, emphysema, and asthma, as well as reduce lung capacity.

Scientists have also found that ground level, or "bad" ozone interferes with the ability of plants to produce and store food, making them more susceptible to disease, insects, and other detrimental forces. The EPA estimates that ground level ozone reduces crop production by some $500 million per year. Bad ozone also wreaks havoc on the foliage of trees and other plants, ruining the landscapes of cities, national parks and recreation areas.

The Chicago metropolitan area currently does not meet the national health based standard for ozone, and is classified by EPA as a "severe nonattainment area" for the air pollutant.

The EPA's Lyons was optimistic that the novel VOC emissions trading program will be an effective way to address the problem, arguing that successful emissions control initiatives are not "one size fits all."

"This program will allow each company to find its own best means of achieving environmental improvement," Lyons said.

Others see things differently. Public Employees for Environmental Responsibility (PEER), a Washington, DC based government watchdog group, argues that such trading programs will allow industries to avoid installing cleanup technologies by instead purchasing air pollution reductions that have been produced in another time or place, or with an altogether different pollutant.

PEER, a whistleblower protection group, says that the EPA's own experts have come forward with grave concerns about such emissions trading schemes.

"According to the agency's own experts, these state trading plans strip away the only safeguards that ensure [that] a true reduction in pollution will result," said Jeff Ruch, the group's executive director. "The public is protected only if we know that each pollution credit trade is an 'apple to apple' exchange. However, EPA is willing to allow an apple to be traded away for the future promise of a guava."

Ruch maintains that such "don't ask, don't tell" emissions trading schemes pose serious public health and environmental consequences. Such programs, he noted, could allow companies to increase their emission of highly toxic chemicals such as benzene, if another company decreases its emissions of nitrogen oxide or some other relatively non-toxic substance.

Such emissions trading programs could also run counter to principles of "environmental justice" by giving big industrial polluters the means to operate unencumbered in low income and minority neighborhoods, Ruch added.

Ruch pointed out that the EPA's approval of the Illinois emissions trading scheme comes on the heels of the failed climate change talks held recently in The Hague, Netherlands. At that summit, the United States' proposal to meet greenhouse gas reduction levels through a market based emissions trading program was rejected by a host of countries, Ruch noted.

Ruch blamed the outgoing Clinton/Gore administration for allowing the EPA to approve emissions trading programs like the one put forward by Illinois. Ruch said the administration has allowed its "fixation" on developing market based solutions to "distract it from its primary responsibility of protecting public health."

The Illinois proposal will be open to public comment for 30 days. The EPA's approval notice can be viewed online at:

See Also -->PEER (Public Employees for Environmental Responsibility) white paper on emissions trading (June, 2000)

Didn't find what you are looking for? We've been online since 1996 and have created 1000's of pages. Search below and you may find just what you are looking for.

Michael R. Meuser
Data Research & GIS Specialist is an independent firm specializing in GIS project development and data research. We created the first U.S. based interactive toxic chemical facility maps on the internet in 1996 and we have been online ever since. Learn more about us and our services.

Have a project in mind? If you have data, GIS project or custom shapefile needs contact Mike.

Contact Us

Report Broken Links

Subscribe for Updates

Follow on Facebook
News & Updates

Find: Maps, Shapefiles, GIS Software & More

MapCruzin Blog for updates, questions and answers
Blog Updates

More Blog Updates


Google Earth Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) Maps
Lester Brown's Plan B 3.0
State GIS Shapefiles, Maps & Resources
GIS Shapefiles & Maps
GIS Programs, Tools & Resources
Free World Country & Regional Maps
GIS / GPS Careers and Job Positions
Disease Outbreak Maps
Extreme Weather & Disaster Maps
Free World Maps from the CIA Factbook
Arctic National Wildlife Refuge ANWR Maps
Oil and Gas Maps
Africanized Honey Bees
Renewable Energy Potential Maps of the United States
Terrorism Maps
War Maps
Google Maps
Weather Maps
GPS Resources
Historical Maps of the World
Google Earth
Library of Congress American Memory Map Downloads
Toxic Chemical Pollution Maps
Climate Change Maps
Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) Maps
Census Shapefiles
World Maps


Environmental Justice
Data Sources
Greenwash & JunkScience
Statistical Resources
Wireless Dangers
Surviving Climate Change
Global Right-To-Know
Creating Living Economies
Books of Note
Toxic Klamath River
Federal Lands Maps
TRI Analysis
TRI Webmaps
EnviroRisk Map Network
Community-Based Research
Right-To-Know or Left to Wonder?
Chemical Industry Archives
21st Century Warfare
National Parks and Public Lands
Trade Secrets/Toxic Deception
GIS Books
Our Projects
Other Projects
1999 Archive Environews
Environmental Books
Environmental Links
Redwood Coast Information
Recycle, Salvage, Reuse

Shapefile Store
Free GIS Software
Free Map Downloads
Free Shapefiles
Free Remote Sensing
Free Topo Maps
Free GIS Tutorial
Free GPS

About MapCruzin - Cookies, Privacy, Fair Use and Disclaimer - Advertise on

Copyright © 1996 - 2019 Michael Meuser, All Rights Reserved
MapCruzin is a Pop-Up Free Website -- Best Viewed With ANY Browser